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By unhappiness pain and the privation of pleasure

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Since Mill's time the only writer who has introduced any modification into strictly Utilitarian thought is Sidgwick Methods of Ethics , , who acknowledges that the pleasure-and-pain standard is incapable of serving universally as the criterion of morality; but believes it to be valuable as an instrument for the correction of the received moral code. The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. It may be further objected, that many who begin with youthful enthusiasm for everything noble, as they advance in years sink into indolence and selfishness. In a future ideal utilitarian state whose idea in Mill is probably a mixture of Bentham's utilitarianism and some socialist ideas 19 each individual would have developed high tastes and faculties and thus would be able to feel pleasure in the most refined goods, including all kinds of so-called moral virtues. Mill granted the practical difficulty of arguing successfully against an opinion that is widely-held and deeply-entrenched even though it relies upon nothing better than a vaguely-expressed presumption of the natural superiority of males. Firstly, it dovetails nicely with Mill's democratic political theory, as he asserts here that the relative value of pleasures is determined by a general consensus of those who have experienced the pleasures in question.
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Utilitarianism

By unhappiness pain and the privation of pleasure
By unhappiness pain and the privation of pleasure
By unhappiness pain and the privation of pleasure
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John Stuart Mill Text

As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator. His psychological analysis, besides the original defect of making self-interest the sole motive of human action, contains many errors. People talk as if the commencement of this course of experience had hitherto been put off, and as if, at the moment when some man feels tempted to meddle with the property or life of another, he had to begin considering for the first time whether murder and theft are injurious to human happiness. And if the fool, or the pig, are a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question. In Chapter Four, Mill offers as "proof" of the principle of utility an argument originally presented by his father, James Mill. This chapter provides the definition of utilitarianism. On Liberty 3 No less than in the realm of thought, in the realm of behavior unconventionality and originality are often signs of great personal genius, which should never be curtailed by social pressures.
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Utilitarianism Quotes and Analysis

Men really ought to leave off talking a kind of nonsense on this subject, which they would neither talk nor listen to on other matters of practical concernment. Please note: These philosophical commentaries, though still in process, are the intellectual property of Gordon L. In order fully to understand this link and its consequences in the analyses of self-harm, it is necessary to carefully analyse Mill's reasoning. The subject is within the cognizance of the rational faculty; and neither does that faculty deal with it solely in the way of intuition. And there needs be the less hesitation to accept this judgment respecting the quality of pleasures, since there is no other tribunal to be referred to even on the question of quantity.
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An apology is due to the philosophical opponents of Utilitarianism, for even the momentary appearance of confounding them with any one capable of so absurd a misconception; which is the more extraordinary, inasmuch as the contrary accusation, of referring everything to pleasure, and that too in its grossest form, is another of the common charges against Utilitarianism: and, as has been pointedly remarked by an able writer, the same sort of persons, and often the very same persons, denounce the theory "as impracticably dry when the word utility precedes the word pleasure, and as too practicably voluptuous when the word pleasure precedes the word utility. Would it be made if he thought that his renunciation of happiness for himself would produce no fruit for any of his fellow creatures, but to make their lot like his, and place them also in the condition of persons who have renounced happiness? Bentham drew up a curious scheme for computing the worth or weight to be assigned to all sorts of pleasures and pains, as a practical norm to determine in the concrete the moral value of any action. Watch weight of breast implants
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